zagreb_1U subotu 27. travnja 2013./17. džumade-l-uhra 1434. h. g. u Islamskom centru Zagreb, uspješno je završio XX. međunarodni znanstveni skup - "Društveni položaj muslimanke u Europi - stanje i kako ga poboljšati". Organizaciju ovoga skupa pomogao je i Naučnoistraživački institut “Ibn Sina”. udionice i sudionici Simpozija iz 8 zemalja Europe, Irana i SAD, eminente znanstvenice i znanstvenici izložili su sažetke svojih znanstvenih radova na postavljenu temu, razmijenili iskustva i međusobno se obogatili u trodnevnom druženju.

 U prilogu su sažeci znanstvenih radova s ovog skupa.

 

 XX. međunarodni znanstveni skup

the 20th International Scientific Symposium

 

DRUŠTVENI POLOŽAJ MUSLIMANKE U EVROPI - STANJE I KAKO GA POBOLJŠATI /

SOCIAL STATUS OF A MUSLIM WOMAN IN EUROPE - CURRENT POSITION AND HOW TO IMPROVE IT 

 

 

 

KNJIGA SAŽETAKA / BOOK OF ABSTRACT

  

Zagreb

26.-27. travnja / April 2013.

16.-17. džumade-l-uhra 1434.

 

Islamski centar Zagreb, Kongresna dvorana  “H. Salim Šabić”

Islamic Center Zagreb, Congress hall “H. Salim Šabić”

 

Organizator / Organizer:

Medžlis Islamske zajednice Zagreb / Majlis of the Islamic Comunity Zagreb

Gavellina 40

10000 Zagreb

Telefon / Phone: +385 1 6137162

Fax: +385 1 6137159

E-mail: Ova e-maila adresa je zaštićena od spambotova. Omogućite JavaScript da biste je vidjeli.

Web: www.islamska-zajednica.hr

 

Financijska podrška Međunarodnog znanstvenog simpozija

Financial Support of the International Scientific Symposium:

 

 

Naučno istraživački institute “Ibn Sina” Sarajevo

Science Research Institute “Ibn Sina” Sarajevo

 

 

Sponzori pauza / Coffee break sponsors:

 

   ČEGRANE MARKETING d.o.o.

 

 

 

Posebno zahvaljujemo / Special thanks to:

Gradu Zagrebu, gradonačelniku gospodinu Milanu Bandiću

Haro d.o.o., Zagreb

mtg-topgraf d.o.o., Velika Gorica

OKM-u Zagreb

Arabeskama, zbor Zagrebačke džamije

Ostalim donatorima i sponzorima / to other donors & sponsors

Mešihatu IZ u Hrvatskoj / to Mashihat of the IC in Croatia

Članovima Medžlisa IZ Zagreb / to the Members of Majlis of the IC Zagreb

Vijeću žena pri Medžlisu IZ Zagreb / to the Women Council at Majlis of the IC Zagreb

Mualimskom vijeću pri Medžlisu IZ Zagreb / to the Muallim Council at Majlis of the IC Zagreb

Svim volonterima / to all volunteers

I svim ljudima dobre volje / and to all people of good will

 

Katalog uredili / Catalog editors:

dr.med. Gzim Redžepi

predsjednik IOM-a Zagreb i član Organizacijskog odbora simpozija

President of the Islamic Comunity Zagreb and a Member of the Organizing Committee

Azra Omanović

predsjednica organizacijskog odbora / Chairman of the Organizing Committee

prof. Nura Merdžanović-Čaušević

član Organizacijskog odbora / Member of the Organizing Committee

prof. Lamija Alili

član Organizacijskog odbora / Member of the Organizing Committee

 

Prevoditelji / Translators:

Azra Omanović

Nura Merdžanović – Čaušević

Lamija Alili

 

Islamska zajednica u Hrvatskoj / Medžlis Islamske zajednice Zagreb

Islamic Community in Croatia / Majlis of the Islamic Community Zagreb

 

 

u povodu 26. obljetnice otvorenja Zagrebačke džamije

on the occasion of the 26th  Anniversary of the Opening of Zagreb Mosque

 

  

 

 

KNJIGA SAŽETAKA / BOOK OF ABSTRACT

 

 

 

Pod visokim pokroviteljstvom Gradonačelnika Grada Zagreba g. Milana Bandića

Under the auspicies of the Mayor of the City of Zagreb mr. Milan Bandić

 

 

 

Zagreb

26.-27. travnja / April 2013.

16.-17. džumede-l-uhra 1434.

 

 

 

Islamski centar Zagreb, Kongresna dvorana  “H. Salim Šabić”

Islamic Center Zagreb, Congress hall “H. Salim Šabić”

Islamska zajednica u Hrvatskoj / Medžlis Islamske zajednice Zagreb

Islamic Community in Croatia / Majlis of the Islamic Community Zagreb

 

 

  

 

Dr. med. Gzim Redžepi

Predsjednik IOM-a Zagreb

 

 

Uvodna riječ

 

Islamska zajednica u Republici Hrvatskoj živi punim i aktivnim životom. No, samo postojanje nije dovo- ljan razlog za zadovoljstvo. Tako Medžlis islamske zajednice u Zagrebu, svaku svoju značajnu obljetnicu koristi za organizaciju nekog hvale vrijednog skupa, znanstvenog simpozija ili natjecanja.

U trenutke svojih najvećih obljetnica želimo utkati razmjenu mišljenja kao nasušnu potrebu svih na- prednih i demokratskih društava, orjentaciju ka dijalogu, potrebu međusobnog upoznavanja i prepozna- vanja, a sve sa željom da ovaj svijet učinimo boljim mjestom.

Povodom 26. obljetnice otvorenja Zagrebačke džamije, ove godine, organiziran je jubilarni, 20. među- narodni znanstveni simpozij na temu “Društveni položaj muslimanke u Europi – stanje i kako ga poboljša- ti”. Na red dođe i tema, koja je sazrijevala dulje vrijeme, tema koja zahtijeva pažljivo sagledavanje temelja islama u odnosu prema društvenom trenutku, njegovim normama, tekovinama i promjenama različitim od podneblja do podneblja, po svim geografskim širinama i dužinama. Društveni status žene muslimanke u Europi toliko je kompleksna tema da bi je lakše bilo stopiti u propitivanje položaja muslimana u Europi općenito. Ta kompleksnost proizilazi iz potrebe preispitivanja ne samo nemuslimanskog društva oko nas već i nas samih, naših naslijeđenih, naših naučenih i najzad, naših prihvaćenih stavova i običaja. Također je neizbježno propitivanje kako šire društvene zajednice, tako i islamske zajednice o dosljednosti spram svojih proklamiranih principa.

Ovaj skup je okupio znanstvenice i znanstvenike iz mnogih europskih, ali i vaneuropskih zemalja, iz Bo- sne i Hercegovine, Rusije, Makedonije, Velike Britanije, Turske, Ukrajine, Amerike, Irana i Hrvatske koji će, osim izlaganja svojih znanstvenih razmatranja i pitanja koja obuhvaća naslovna tema, nastojati prenijeti refleksije iskustava društvenih zajednica u kojima žive. Hoćemo li dobiti odgovor na pitanje kako poboljša- ti društveni položaj muslimanke u Europi, ostaje nam da vidimo i čujemo, a hoćemo li od toga imati koristi, ovisi o nama.

Organizacijski odbor ovog simpozija za jedini cilj ima doprinijeti poboljšanju stanja kroz bolje međusob-

no razumijevanje, rasvjetljavajući pitanja od zajedničkog interesa.

Zahvaljujemo svim sudionicima na odazivu i suradnji te se iskreno nadamo da ćemo svi imati koristi od

ovog vrijednog druženja.

  

 

 

Dr. med. Gzim Redžepi

President IOM Zagreb

 

 

 

Foreword

 

Islamic Community in the Republic of Croatia lives an indeed full and active life, but its pure existence is not reason enough to be satisfied with. Therefore, Majilis of the Islamic community in Zagreb uses every Anniversary to organize some meaningful event like Scientific Symposium or a Competition.

As a compelling need of all progressive and democratic Societies, we want to interweave the Exchange of views, orientation towards Dialogue and the Necessity for mutual Understanding and Recognition into the Moments of our most important Anniversaries – all with desire to make this World a better Place.

On the Occasion of the 26th Anniversary of the Opening of Zagreb Mosque, we have organized the 20th International Scientific Symposium – “Social status of the Muslim Woman in Europe – current Position and how to improve it”. This Subject that has been waiting for a long time requires a careful observance of the Islamic principles in relation to the Social moment, its Norms, Heritage and Changes that vary between different Areas across the World Atlas.

Social Status of the Muslim Woman in Europe is such a complex issue that it might be easier to merge it into Analysis of the Status of Muslims in Europe in general.

That complexity evolves from the Need for questioning not only the non-Muslim Society around us but ourselves as well, our inherited, our learned, and finally our embraced Stands and Customs. It is also un- avoidable to reconsider the society around us as well as the Islamic Community in consistence towards their proclaimed principles.

This Assembly will gather Experts from many European and other Countries – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Russia, Macedonia, Great Britain, Turkey, Ukraine, America, Iran and Croatia. Aside from presenting their Scientific Views on the Subject Matter, they are going to pass to us the Reflections of the Experiences from Social Communities they live in themselves.

Are we going to get an answer to the Question how to improve the social Position of the Muslim

Woman in Europe, is left to be seen. Shall we benefit from it, is up to us.

The Organization Committee for this Symposium has a single aim in mind – to contribute improving the

current State through better mutual understanding, by enlightening the issues of joined interest.

We thank all participants for their response and cooperation, and we hope that we will all benefit from

this valuable association.

  

 

  

Anjum Anwar

 

Gospođa Anjum Anwar rođena je u Karachiju, Pakistan. Kako bi nastavila obrazovanje, u Englesku dolazi zajedno sa svojim roditeljima 1966. godine. Ima jedinstven posao. Naime, imenovana je za časnika razvoja i unaprjeđenja dija- loga u katedrali Blackburn i od travnja 2007. godine, njezina je glavna uloga u katedrali promicanje međusobnog razumijevanja vjere i dijaloga.

   

Uloga žene muslimake u pluralnoj Europi

 

Danas kada je islamofobija u porastu, kada vlade proaktivno zahtijevaju da se zabrani nošenje musli- manske ženske odjeće, kada se na islamske bogomolje gleda kao na agresivno vrijeđanje/ugrožavnje za- padnih vrijednosti, što može žena muslimanka učiniti u “Većinskoj Europi” kako bi stvorila bolje društvo? Moja prezentacija teži da istakne studiju o ženi muslimanki koja radi u jednoj anglikanskoj crkvi u Velikoj Britaniji. Blackburn with Darwen na sjeverozapadu Velike Britanije je jedan stari grad mlinova, broji 147500 stanovnika od kojih je 27% muslimanskih korijena, uglavnom iz Indije i manji dio iz drugih dijelova svijeta, koji su došli u Veliku Britaniju kao izbjeglice/azilanti. U Backburnu se govori 77 jezika. Ova istudija će ista- knuti kako učešće žene muslimanke u obrazovanju, građanskim dužnostima, umjetnosti i kulturi, politici i naravno vjeri može stvoriti koheziju zajednice. Prezentacija će težiti da istakne i izazove s kojima se suoća- va “žena muslimanka u jednoj anglikanskoj crkvi” i kako su se ti izazovi pretvorili u pozitivne akcije kroz suradnju u partnerstvo sa raznnim partnerima npr. lokalnim vlastima, obrazovnim institucijama, džamija- ma i crkvama, međuvjerskim organizacijam kao i drugim dobrovoljnim i statutarnim organizacijama. Pre- zentacija će također postaviti teška pitanja islamskoj zajednici i islamskom vodstvu na koja treba odgovo- riti, kako bi odgojna uloga žene muslimanke bila djelotvorna u stvaranju jake civilizacije kao i bolje i sigur- nije Europe.

 

  

 Anjum Anwar

 

Anjum Anwar was born in Karachi in Pakistan, and she came to England, with her parents in 1966 mainly for education. Now, she has a unique job as a Muslim member of the staff of a cathedral. She was appointed as a dialogue development officer at Blackburn Cathedral in April 2007, working on its com- munity cohesion, education, outreach and interfaith development agency pro- gramme. Her main role at the Cathedral is to promote inter-faith understand- ing and dialogue.

 

Role of Muslim Women in Plural europe

 

Today when Islamophobia is on the rise, when governments are proactively seeking to ban Muslim women’s attire, when the question of Islamic buildings are seen as aggressive impingement on Western values, what can Muslim women do in “Plural Europe” to create a better society? My presentation seeks to highlight a case study of a Muslim woman working at an Anglican Cathedral in UK. Blackburn with Dar- wen in the North West of UK is an old mill town, with a total population of 147,500 of which 27% is of Muslim background, mainly from the sub-continent. Seventy-seven languages are spoken in Blackburn, with a small minority coming from other parts of the world, who have come to UK as refugees/asylum seekers. The case study highlights how Muslim women’s participation in education, civic duties, arts and culture, politics and of course religion can create community cohesion. The presentation will seek to high- light the challenges faced by the “Muslim Woman in an Anglican Cathedral,” and how these challenges have been turned into positive actions through working in partnership with various partners e.g. Local authorities, educational institutions, mosques and churches, interfaith organizations and with other vol- untary and statutory organizations. The presentation will also pose difficult questions which are impor- tant for the Muslim community and Muslim leadership, to respond to, if the nurturing role of a Muslim woman is to be effective in creating a strong civilization and a better and a safer Europe.

 

 

 

 

 Mr. sc. Zehra Alispahić

 

Zehra Alispahić je osnovnu i srednju školu završila u Rogatici, BiH, gdje je i rođena. Studij na Filozofskom fakultetu u Sarajevu, Odsjek orjentalnih jezika i književnosti – arapski, turski i perzijski jezik, okončava 1988. godine. Od 1998. do 2001. boravi na poslijediplomskom studiju na univerzitetu Muhamed Peti u Rabatu, Maroko, na kojem uspješno magistrira u oblasti islamske pedagogije i arapskog jezika za strance. Trenutno je zaposlena na Fakultetu islamskih nauka kao viši asistent na predmetu arapski jezik. Član je Sabora IZ-a u BiH, kao i broj- nih komisija pri Saboru i Rijasetu IZ-a u BiH. Objavila je veći broj radova, prije- voda i eseja. Sudjelovala je na brojnim internacionalnim konferencijama i znanstvenim skupovima.

 

 

Položaj muslimanke u islamskoj zajednici regije

 

Islamska zajednica u Bosni i Hercegovini ali i islamske zajednice u Hrvatskoj, Sloveniji i Srbiji su neodvo- jivi dio širih društvenih zajednica kojima pripadaju. Sve promjene koje se događaju u spomenutim društvi- ma snažno se reflektiraju i na rad Islamske zajednice ovih prostora. Činjenica da žene nisu ili su malo an- gažirane u javnom sektoru, na rukovodećim i izvršnim funkcijama u društvu, rukovodećim strukturama Islamske zajednice ovih prostora ne bi smjela biti izgovor za ignoriranje čitave lepeze ženskih potencijala koji su u jednom dugom povijesnom periodu, a to je slučaj i danas, ostali neiskorišteni i nevalorizirani. Promatrajući organizacijsku vertikalu islamske zajednice od džemata do Sabora, ne možemo poreći činje- nicu da je prisustvo žene, tek sporadično. Primjera radi, žene koje čine polovicu ili više od polovice svih naših džemata, nisu angažirane u džematskim odborima, u skupštinama medžlisa, nema ih među uposle- nicima u medžlisima, muftijstvima, u najnovijem sastavu Rijaseta IZ u BiH među članovima nema žena, u Saboru IZ u BiH od 83 sabornika četiri mjesta su pripala ženama. U nastavi stručnih predmeta u svih šest medresa i tri islamska fakulteta u angažmanu ženskog kadra tek se posljednjih nekoliko godina prave isko- raci. Istovremeno šest medresa i tri islamska fakulteta koji rade u okviru IZ u BiH obrazuje se značajan ženski kadar sa zvanjem muallime, profesorice islamske teologije ili religijske pedagogije.

Imajući uvidu aktualna gibanja u islamskome svijetu te nadolazeće ustavne promjene u Islamskoj zajed- nici, puni smo očekivanja. Zato smo kroz Nacrt Platforme novog Ustava IZ, amandmane i javne rasprave, pokušale u svijetlu novina koje očekujemo u organizacijskoj strukturi IZ-e, osigurati ustavnu osnovu za zajedničko djelovanje muškaraca i žena, ravnopravnost, veći senzibilitet prema pitanju žene i njenom uključivanju u rad i djelovanje Islamske zajednice u Bosni i Hercegovini u skladu sa Kur’ani Kerimom, Sunnetom Muhammeda s.a.v.s., islamskom tradicijom Bošnjaka i zahtjevima vremena u kojem živimo.

Biti vjeran temeljnim načelima islama znači hrabro narušiti naslijeđene i tradicionalne okvire življenja i odnose moći u kojima je žena uvijek i samo objekat. Gdje god se to desil, desile su se i pozitivne promjene. Aktualna gibanja muslimanskih društava koja svjedočimo posljednjih godina polučila su rezultate zato što su žene bile subjekti i aktivni učesnici. Javnost o tome polahko ali argumentirano dobiva informacije. U konačnici i u tim sredinama promijenit će se diskurs o ženi, o njezinoj slobodi, javnom angažmanu. Naša Zajednica bi trebala stvoriti takav ambijent u kojem se Bošnjakinja, muslimanka sa svojom energijom i kompetencijama koje može ponuditi mora osjećati poželjnom i korisnom. Naša Zajednica nije ni toliko velika ni toliko jaka da potencijale žena vjernica ostavalja i ignorira ili ostavlja nekom drugom. Ali da ne bude zabune tamo gdje zaista postoje realni ženski potencijali i kompetencije. Ne zarad kvota i procenata.

 

  

Mr. sc. Zehra Alispahić

 

Zehra Alispahić was born and raised in Rogatica, BiH. Graduated in 1988 on Oriental Languages and Literature – Arabic, Turkish, Persian on Faculty of Hu- manities and Social Sciences in Sarajevo. She has finished Postgraduate Stud- ies on the University Muhamed Peti in Rabat, Morrocco – on Arabic Language for Foreigners and Islamic Pedagogy. Alispahić is currently working on the Fac- ulty of Islamic Sciences in Sarajevo as a Higher Assisstant for the Arabic Lan- guage. She is a Representative in the Islamic Community Sabor (Parliament), also a Member of many Commissions and Societies related to Islamic Commu- nity in BiH. She is a Publisher of several scientific Columns, Translations and Essays and a Participant of numerous International and Scientific Conferences.

 

 

Status of the Muslim Woman in the islamic Communittee of the Region

 

The Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Islamic community in Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia are an inseparable part of the wider communities to which they belong. Any changes that are taking place in these societies are strongly reflected in the Islamic community in this region. The fact that women are not or are little involved in the public sector in managerial and executive positions in the company, should not be an excuse to the management structures of the Islamic community in this region for ignoring the whole range of women potentials for a long historical period, and it is also the case today, wasted and not valuated. Observing organizational vertical of the Islamic Communittee from Jamaat up to the Parlia- ment, we can not deny the fact that the presence of women is only sporadically. For example, women make up half or more than half of all our Jamaats, are not engaged in Jamaat committees, not in Assembys of the Majlis, not among the employees in the Majlis, Mufti-offices, in the latest “Rijaset” (Reis ul Ulema Council) of the Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are no women. Among the 83 members places in the Islamic Communittee B&H Parliament only 4 places are awarded to women. In teaching vocational sub- jects in all six madrasas and three Islamic University in the engagement of female staff only in the last few years, real steps forward are done. Simultaneously, in six madrassas and three Islamic colleges that are working within the Islamic Communittee BH is in the proces of education are significant number of femail participants for the profession of muallims, Islamic theology professors or religious pedagogists. Having in mind the current movements in the Islamic world and the upcoming constitutional amendments in the Is- lamic community, we are full of expectations. That’s why we have through the Draft of the platform of the new Constitution of the Islamic Communittee, amendments and public debate, to light of the news that we expect in the organizational structure of the IC, tried to provide a constitutional basis for joint action of men and women, equality, greater sensitivity to the issue of women and their involvement in the operation and actions of the Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with the Qur’an, Sunnah Muham- mad, Islamic tradition of Bosniaks and the demands of the times we live.

Being fateful to the fundamental principles of Islam means boldly distort the legacy and traditional frame- works of life and power relations in which a woman is always and only property. Wherever it happened, there have been positive changes. The current movement of Muslim societies that have witnessed in recent years have yielded results because women were the subjects and active participants. Public get informed slowly but with arguments. Ultimately in these areas will change the discourse of the woman, of her liberty, public en- gagement. Our community should create the environment in which the Bosniak Muslim woman, with her en- ergy and competence that can offer , must feel desirable and useful. Our community is neither so large nor so strong to ignore or leave female believers potentials to someone else. But make no mistake, where there are indeed real female capacities and competencies. Not for the sake of quotas and percentages.

 

 

Mr. sc. Đermana Šeta

 

Đermana Šeta voditeljica je istraživačkog odjela Centra za edukaciju i istra- živanje Nahla. Magistrirala je interdisciplinarne religijske studije na CIPS-u Uni- verziteta u Sarajevu (u suradnji s univerzitetima u Arizoni, Oslu i Kopenhage- nu). Predsjednica je Komisije za slobodu vjere Rijaseta Islamske zajednice u Bosni i Hercegovini i članica Centra za napredne studije. Autorica je knjige “Za- što marama: Bosanskohercegovačke muslimanke o životu i radu pod mara- mom” i (su)autorica drugih publikacija/knjiga/članaka o ženama, religiji i ljud- skim pravima.

  

 

Aktivno prisustvo i djelovanje žena u džamijama / džematima kao prilika za osnaživanje žena i zajednice

 

Rad se bavi pozicijom i ulogom koju europske muslimanke imaju u džamijama/džematima ukazujući na činjenicu da su džemati općenito još uvijek najčešće “muški” džemati te da su ženske potrebe unutar ta- kvih džemata često zanemarane, nisu sistemski riješene i najčešće su prepuštene volonterskim rukama entuzijastičnih pojedinki. Rad kreće od uloge koju džamija/džemat (treba da) ima u smislu svojevrsnog resursnog centra na raspolaganju zajednici i komparativno ukazuje na ne samo (raznoliko primijenjenu) fizičku podijeljenost džemata na muški i ženski, nego veoma često i suštinsku razvojenost unutar džemata koja rezultira time da je “muški” džemat taj koji definira budžetsko raspolaganje i strategiju razvoja tog džemata gdje žene često ostaju izvan procesa donošenja odluka i mogućnosti utjecaja na njih. Drugačijim, inkluzivnijim politikama i modelima prilagođenim samoj zajednici i ispregovaranim unutar same te zajed- nice, džemat postaje prostor aktivnog prisustva i djelovanja žena. Kroz ovakvo vidljivo prisustvo žena i zajedničko djelovanje svih moguće je postići multiperspektivna rješenja koja će uvažavati potrebe svih članova i članica džemata i biti od koristi cijeloj zajednici. Na ovaj način, europske muslimanke dobijaju priliku da se u poluprivatnom sigurnom prostoru džamije osnažuju za djelovanje u široj, često ne njihovoj matičnoj, zajednici i državi. Ovakav pristup posebno je značajan za muslimanke koje se ne nalaze u svojim matičnim zemljama jer im pomaže da proces integracije razumiju kao priliku za dalji rast bez straha od gubitka vlastitog identiteta koji je na ovaj način već potvrđen djelovanjem u vlastitoj zajednici. Rad se za- sniva na terenskom istraživanju urađenom u džematima u BiH (od oktobra, 2012. do februara, 2013.) te na sličnim istraživanjima urađenim u Velikoj Britaniji, SAD, Njemačkoj i Švedskoj.

 

Mr. sc. Đermana Šeta

 

Đermana Šeta, MSc is the Head of Research Department at Center for Edu- cation and Research Nahla. She holds a Master’s degree in Religious studies from the Center for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Studies of Sarajevo Univer- sity (in cooperation with universities from Arizona, Oslo and Copenhagen). She is the Chair of Freedom of Faith Commission at the Institution of Islamic com- munity in Bosnia and Herzegovina and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies, Sarajevo. She authored a book entitled “Why the headscarf: Muslim women of Bosnia and Herzegovina speak about their life and work with the headscarf” and other publications/articles on women, religion and human rights.

 

 

Active Presence and Participation of Women in Mosques/ jamaats as an opportunity for empowerment and Growth of Women and Community

 

The paper deals with the position and role which Muslim women have in European mosques/jaamats indicating the fact that these jaamats are still predominantly “male” and that women’s needs within them are frequently neglected, not solved in a systematic manner and quite often handled by enthusiastic vol- unteers. The paper starts from depicting the role which the mosques and jaamats(should) have as certain resource centers at the service of the whole community and compares not only (differently applied) phys- ical divisions of the space for men and women but very often divisions between them as such resulting with “male” jaamats defining the financial allocations and development strategies of the jaamat leaving women very often outside of the decision making processes without a possibility to influence them. With different, more inclusive policies and models adapted to the very community and negotiated from within the community, the jaamat could become a space for active presence and participation of women. With such a visible presence of women and common action of all it could be possible to find multi-perspective solutions respecting the needs of all (male and female) members of the jaamat and serve the whole com- munity. In this way, European Muslim women would be given an opportunity to be empowered in the semi-private space of the mosque/jaamat for further activities in wider community and country – very often not of their origin. Such an approach is especially important for Muslim women who are away from their countries of origin, since it helps them understand the process of integration as a chance for further personal and professional growth without the fear of losing their own identity now grounded in their con- tribution and acknowledgement at the local religious community. The paper is based on the field research performed in jaamats in Bosnia and Herzegovina (October, 2012 to February, 2013) and similar research projects performed in UK, USA, Germany and Sweden.

 

 

  

Emina Bužinkić

 

Emina Bužinkić je rođena u Sisku, 1984. godine. Dio ratnog odrastanja pro- vela je u izbjeglištvu u Ljubljani i Zagrebu. Nakon toga i kosovske krize postaje odlučna u traganju za promjenom. Radi u Documenti – Centru za suočavanje s prošlošću kao programska koordinatorica, a u posljednje vrijeme bavi se pro- blematikom civilnih žrtava rata kao jednom od najvećih nepravdi suvremenog hrvatskog društva. Angažirana je u Centru za mirovne studije kroz mirovnu edukaciju i zagovaranje javnih politika izgradnje mira, posebice onih koje se tiču afirmacije položaja tražitelja/ica azila i azilanata te njihove integracije. Ak- tivna je u Mreži mladih Hrvatske kroz zagovaranje unaprjeđenja položaja mla- dih u zemlji. Voditeljica je neformalnog obrazovnog programa Studiji o mladi- ma za mlade.

Članica je Vijeća predsjednika Republike za socijalnu pravdu i vladinog Po- vjerenstva za ljudska prava. Završila je studij politologije i niz formalnih i neformalnih obrazovnih progra- ma. Mašta o svijetu bez granica.

 

 

Izazovi položaja ‘svjetovne’ muslimanke

 

Tema izlaganja tiče se općeg promišljanja položaja muslimana u europskim društvima, kao i specifično položaj žene, odnosno muslimanke. Zanima nas primjer integracije muslimanskih žena u snažno sekular- nim društvima poput francuskoga gdje je javno isticanje vjerskih simbola zabranjeno. Izlaganje će biti kri- tički osvrt na položaj muslimanke u francuskome društvu u odnosu na francuske tekovine slobode, vrijed- nosti francuske državnosti i njezinu multikulturalnost, kao i na ljudska prava i slobode pojedinaca.

Zakonsko zabranjivanje nošenja burke i isticanja vjerskih simbola pred nas postavlja barem dva pitanja:

• Koliko je i je li uopće francuska država ovim činom potaknula borbu za ljudska prava muslimanski is-

pod burke i pomogla im iskorak u svjetovni život neopterećen vjerskim okvirima, odnosno koliko je

ugrozila živote muslimanski i barem djelić njihove slobode?, te

• Zašto je država koja počiva na tekovinama liberte, egalite, fraternite, burku doživjela kao prijetnju

multikulturalnosti, demokraciji i sekularizmu?

Struktura izlaganja slijedi studiju slučaja položaja migranata, specifično žena muslimanski iz sjeverno

afričkih društava koje danas žive u Francuskoj kao druga ili treća generacija migranata nakon kolonijalnog

vremena.

 

  

Emina Bužinkić

 

Born in 1984. in Sisak. Part of her youth during the last war she spent in exile in Ljubljana and Zagreb. Afterwards and the Kosovo Crisis she was deter- mined to go for changes. She works as program coordinator in Documenta- Center for Dealing with the Past- lately deals with the problem of civilian war victims, as one of the greatest injustices of contemporary Croatian society. She is also involved in the Center for Peace Studies through peace education and advocacy for public policy of peace-building, especially those dealing with af- firmation of the position of asylum seekers and their intergration. She is active in the Croatian Youth Network through advocacy to improve the position of young people in the country. She is head of the non-formal education pro- gram- Study on young people for young people. She is a member of the Coun- cil of the President of the Republic for social justice and the Government Com-

mittee for Human Rights. She holds a BA in Political Science and a series of formal and informal education programs. She dreams of a world without ‘borders’.

 

 

Challenging Position of the ‘secular’ Muslim

 

Topic presentations concerns the general reflection on position of Muslim in European societies, as well as the specific position of Muslim women. We are interested in an example of integration of Muslim women in strongly secular society like Franch is, where the public display of religious symbols is prohibit- ed. The presentation will be a critical review of the position of Muslim women in French society in relation to the French heritage of freedom, the value of French sovereignty and its multiculturalism, as well as to human rights and freedoms of individuals.

Legal banning of burqa and highlighting of religious symbols, put in front of us at least two questions:

• How and whether was the French government by this act prompted the fight for Muslim women hu-

man rights under burka andhelp them step out into the worldly life unburdened by religious frame-

work, or how much has endangered a Muslim woman life andat least a part of their freedom?

• Why the state that is based on the achievements of Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite, found burka a threat

to multiculturalism, democracy and secularism?

The structure of presentation follows the study of the case of migrants position, specifically Muslim

women from the north Africansocieties that live today in France as the second or third generation of mi-

grants after colonial times.

 

 

 

Prof. dr. sc. Mohammadali Barzanooni

 

Mohammadali Barzanooni je univerzitetski profesor i direktor Naučnoistra- živačkog instituta “Ibn Sina” u Sarajevu. autor više od sto radova, učač Kur’ana (pobjednik na državnom takmičenju u Iranu 1984.) Odgojio je veliki broj stude- nata, ali i učača Kur’ana. Učio tefsir, fikh, i usul kod uglednih iranskih alima: Fazela Lankeranija, Muhameda Dževadija Amolija, Vaezzadeh Horasanija, Ha- šemija Šahrudija, Mudžtehida Šabesterija. Svršenik je doktorskog studija iz oblasti kulturoloških proučavanja, te također doktorskog studija iz oblasti fikha i osnova islamskog prava. Trenutno je direktor Naučnoistraživačkog instituta “Ibn Sina” u Sarajevu.

 

 

Analiza islamskog gledišta u pogledu nekih krivih stajališta o ženi

 

Islam kao posljednja nebeska religija koja je spuštena s ciljem sveopćeg upućivanja kada razmatra pita- nje stvaranja žene i muškarca oboje motri u kontekstu jedne prirode bez bilo kakvoga podvajanja između njih dvoga.

Naspram ovakvoga stajališta u nekim djelima koja se odnose na ranije religijske pravce, pa čak i u nekim nebeskim religijama, smatralo se da je žena stvorena od prostije materije nego li muškarac ili da je stvore- na od Ademova lijevoga rebra.

Osim toga u povijesti su postojale neke teorije koje omalovažavaju ženu a čiji se utjecaji još uvijek mo- gu vidjeti u izrekama nekih naroda i koje su ostavile neželjeni trag i u svjetskoj književnosti. U ovom radu će se ukratko razmotriti neka od ovih gledišta.

Jedan temeljiti humanistički pristup princip “jedinstva vrste” između žene i muškarca smatra osnovnim i najsveobuhvatnijim principom u valoriziranju vrijednosti ženskog i muškog pola; zbilja je to koja nadilazi kriterij “spolnosti” i na toj ravni ne postoji razlika između ženskog i muškog pola. Sa aspekta ove zbilje žena i muškarac su istovjetni, nema nikakve razlike među njima i oboje su opredmećenje ove “vrste” koja jeste ademovska zbilja.

Spolne razlike i razlike koje postoje u tjelesnoj konstituciji između njih dvoje, pa čak i neke instiktivne razlike koje se uočavaju između žene i muškarca, sve one predstavljaju kategorije koje su izvan ademovske i suštine čovjeka kao vrste i po prirodi stvari ne ulaze u sferu prosudbi koje govore o ljudskoj sušastvenosti žene i muškarca.

Nikada razlike pravne prirode ne mogu biti argument niti dokaz u prilog postojanju razlikā u pogledu ljudskoga identiteta “ženskog pola” i “muškog pola”.

Nažalost, neke pogrešne teorije o ženi našle su svoj put prodora u društvene zajednice. Neke od tih teorija bile su zastupljene i prije pojave islama, dok su neke aktualizirane upravo u ovome vremenu u ne- kim naučavanjima.

Rad će ponuditi kraću analizu šest pogrešnih teorija o ženi i veliki broj izreka negativnog naboja u po- gledu žene te specifični pogledi i odnosi koje u sadašnjem vremenu promovira feministički pokret, sve to ukazuje na potrebu jednog dubljeg promišljanja o ženi.

 

 

 Prof. dr. sc. Mohammadali Barzanooni

 

Mohammadali Barzanooni is university professor from Iran, author of over

100 works, hafiz ( winner in 1984 at the state competition in Iran). He raised a

great number of students but also reciters of Quran. The prominent Iranian

scholars Lankeranija, Muhammad Jevadia Amolia, Vaezzadeh Horasania, Hash-

emi Shahrudia, Mujtahid Shabesteria taught him tafsir, fiqh and usul. He won

his doctoral degree in the field of cultural studies, and also in the field of fiqh

and basis of Islamic law. Currently he is director of the Scientific Research Insti-

tute “Ibn Sina” in Sarajevo.

 

 

The analisys from the islamic Perspective of Certain erroneous Theories about Women

 

Islam, as the final heavenly Religion which has been introduced to us with the Intention of universal Guidance, when talking about the question of creation of a Woman and a Man, sees them both in a Con- text of a unique Nature, without separations. In opposite to this, in the Works that refere to earlier reli- gious Directions, even in some of the heavenly Religions, there are Stands to be found that a Woman was made of a simpler Substance than a Man, or that the Woman was created from Adams left Rib. Besides the mentioned, in History there were always many Theories that degraded Women and whose Influences are still to be seen in Sayings of some Nations, and which have left a substantial unwanted Trace in the world Literature also. In this Work some of them will be shortly rewiewed. A basic humanistic Approach finds the Principle of the “Unity of Species” the ground and universal Rule for estimating the value of Male or Female; it is a Reality that overcomes the cryterium of sexual and on that level there is no difference between a Man and a Woman. From this Aspect they are similar, there is nothing different about them and are both the Incarnation of the “Species” which is the adamic Reality. The gender Differences and the Differences in the phisycal Construction of the two, even some instinctive Distinctions that can be seen between them, are all Categories outside of the adamic and the Core of the Human kind as a Species, and by nature do not enter the Sphere of Discourse that speeks of human Essence of a Woman and a Man. The Differences in legal Matters can never become an Argument or Proof of existing Distinction in the human Identity of a Woman from a Man. Unfortunately, some misled theories about Women have found Ways to penetrate social Communities. Some of them were present before the Islam, while some were being actualised right at the time Islam was born. This Disertation will present a short Analisys of six erroneous Theories about Women, a large amount of Sayings that refere negative on Women, and specific Observa- tions and Relations that are today being promoted by Feminist Movement – all of these will show a seri- ous Necessity of a new Discourse about the Woman Matter.

 

 

 

 Dr. sc. Bisera Turković

 

Bisera Turković, diplomata i političar. Bila je veleposlanica Bosne i Hercego- vine u Sjedinjenim američkim državama (SAD), Hrvatskoj, Mađarskoj te nerezi- dentna veleposlanica BiH za Meksiko i Brazil. Od 1996. do 2000. god., obavljala je dužnost veleposlanice BiH pri Organizaciji za europsku sigurnost i suradnju (OSCE) u Beču. Diplomirala je pravo na Pravnom fakultetu u Sarajevu, te Crimi- nal Justice Administration na Phillip Institute of Technology, Melburn, Austra- lija. Završila je postdiplomski studij iz kriminologije na University of LaTrobe, Melburn, Australija i ima doktorat iz oblasti Međunarodnih odnosa sa američ- kog Pacific Western University. Od 2004. do 2005. godine bila je stalni pred- stavnik BiH pri Uredu Ujedinjenih Naroda u Beču. U periodu od 2001. do 2004. godine, radila je kao Izvršni direktor Centra za sigurnosne studije u BiH. Danas je veleposlanica BiH u Belgiji i Luksemburgu.

 

 

Društveni položaj muslimanke u europi – stanje i kako ga ponoljšati

 

Nema sumnje da je status žene u 20. stoljeću u Evropi doživio radikalne promjene. Žene su dobile pri- stup mnogim socijalnim i ekonomskim pravima. U mnogim zemljama njihova prava su izjednačena sa pravima muškaraca, prava na obrazovanje, prava da participiraju na jednakoj osnovi u socijalnim, eko- nomskim i kulturnim aktivnostima, da učestvuju u političkim odlukama koje se tiču zemlje, prava da biraju i da budu birane. Prava koja su dugo bila negirana sada su pristupačna ženama u velikom broju zemalja.

Zajedno sa ovim pravima idu i slobode, progres koji je potpomognut razvojem nauke i tehnologije, te- levizija, internet i druga tehnička dostignuća su na dohvat ruke, sve to omogučava lagani pristup obrazo- vanju i informiranosti. Žene danas napreduju profesionalno, ekonomski, akademski, brže nego ikada do sada. One su prisutne u svim profesijama, u svim segmentima života.

U isto vrijeme žene su preopterećene usljed povećane odgovornosti i napetosti u borbi za karijeru, sve to stvara vakum u njihovom privatnom životu koji onda pokušavaju da opravdaju materijalnom nezavisno- šću. Vrlo često žene nailaze na problem u efikasnom ispunjavanju svojih ličnih, socijalnih i profesionalnih obaveza. Iscrpljene su od pokušaja da budu uspješne u ulozi majke, žene, kćerke i profesionalne žene. Susreću se sa krizom identiteta, uloge, značaja kulturno vjerske pripadnosti.

Žene su postale uspješne na univerzitetima, u menedžmentu, državnim službama, politici, ali ne smije- mo zaboraviti da veliki broj žena radi i kao nisko kvalifikovani kadar, u tvornicama, kao najamni radnici, čistaćice i slično. Mnoge žene prolaze kroz omalovažavanja na poslu, kroz nasilje u porodici, kroz psihološ- ke torture, razvode… Neke od njih su prevarene, ucviljene, sa muževima koji ulaze u vanbračne afere.

Položaj muslimanke je jasno definisan islamskim pravilima i propisima, kako primjenjivati ta pravila i propise u sekularnom evropskom okruženju u vremenu islamofobije s jedne strane i vrlo limitiranog islam- skog znanja sa druge strane?

 

 

 Dr. sc. Bisera Turković

 

Bisera Turković, dyplomat and politician, born in 1954., Ambassador of Bos- nia and Herzegovina in Croatia, Hungary, USA as well as non-resident Ambas- sador of Mexico and Brasil. She graduated from the Faculty of Law in Sarajevo, and Criminal Justice Administration at the Phillip Institute of Technology, Mel- bourne, Australia. She completed her graduate studies in criminology at the University of LaTrobe, Melbourne, Australia and has a doctor’s degree in inter- national relations at the American Pacific Western University. From 1996 until

2000 she was BiH Ambassador to the Organization for Security and Coopera- tion (OSCE) in Vienna. From 2001 until 2004 she worked as executive director of the Center for Security Studies in BiH. Currently she is BiH Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg.

 

 The Social Status of Muslim Women in europe: Their Current State and How to improve it

 

There is no doubt that the status of women in 20th Century Europe has gone through a radical change. Women have been given access to multiple social and economic rights. In many countries their rights are equal to the rights of males such as educational rights, rights to participate on an equal basis on social, economic and cultural activities, political participation, and; the right to elect and be elected. Rights which were for a long time denied to women are now equally accessible to both genders in a majority of coun- tries. Together with these rights come freedoms. Progress which has been supported with the develop- ment of science, television, internet, and other technological development are easily approachable. All that makes access easy to education and information. Women today are professionally developing – as well as economically and academically – faster than ever before. They are present in all professions in all segments of life. At the same time, women are under extreme pressure as a consequence of their in- creased level of responsibility. Tensions and career-related struggle creates a vacuum in their private lives which they are trying to fill by financial independence. Very often, women are confronted with problems in the affective fulfilment of their personal, social and professional obligations. They are exhausted in at- tempts to be successful in the roles of mother, women, daughter and modern professional. Women are confronted with an identity crisis; a crisis relating to their role in relation to cultural and religious belong- ing. Women have become successful at universities, in management, in public service and among other politics. However, we should not forget that a large number of women are engaged in low qualified and low paid work in factories as hire workers, cleaners, and similar activities. Many women are going through discrimination at the workplace through violence in the family, through psychological torture, divorce and so forth. Some of them are being cheated upon, left in tears, with husbands which enter into extramarital relations and harassment at the workplace. The status of Muslim women is clearly defined by Islamic rules and regulations. How to apply these rules and regulations in a secular European surrounding at a time of islamophobia and extremely limited Islamic knowledge is a challenge. I will try and address some of the issues arising from this situation.

 

 

  

Prof. dr. sc. Enes Karić

 

Enes Karić je rođen u Višnjevu, Travnik. Gazi Husrev-begovu medresu je za- vršio u Sarajevu, 1978., a potom upisao Fakultet političkih nauka i Fakultet islamskih nauka u Sarajevu. Na Fakultetu islamskih nauka diplomirao je 1981., a na Fakultetu političkih nauka 1982. godine. Magistrirao je 1986. na Filozof- skom fakultetu Univerziteta u Sarajevu, a doktorirao 1989. godine na Filološ- kom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu . Boravio je više puta na specijalizacija- ma na univerzitetima Al-Azhar, Yale i Oxford. Sudjelovao je na mnogim simpo- zijima posvećenim filozofiji, hermeneutičkim /tefsirskim/ istraživanjima, povi- jesti tumačenja svetih tekstova (a posebno Kur’ana), globalizaciji. Trenutno radi kao redovni profesor na Fakultetu islamskih nauka u Sarajevu. Posebno se bavi poviješću tumačenja Kur’ana i metodologijom tumačenja Kur’ana.

 

 

 

 

Islamski modernizam i tretman žene

 

Islamski modernizam imao je svoje velike temate i narative, npr. islam i suvremeno društvo, islam i država, islam i Zapad, islam i tehnika. Među svojim velikim pitanjima koje je pobudio islamski moderni- zam, posebno se ističe propitivanje uloge žene muslimanke u suvremenom dobu. Kritika tradicionalnih viđenja uloge žene i afirmiranje njenih suvremenih angažmana u samom su vrhu intelektualnih interesira- nja islamskog modernizma. U ovom je pogledu islamski modernizam proizveo veoma bogatu literaturu. S jedne strane, mnogi autori i autorice traže da se islam prestane tumačiti kao “muška” vjera. S druge stra- ne, dolazi do prevrednovanja zapadnih pojmova o jednakosti spolova, kao i tradicionalnih islamskih viđe- nja suradnje žene i muža, majke i djece, sestara i braće, itd. Posebna tema islamskog modernizma u afir- miranju žene u suvremenom dobu formulirana je kroz novo viđenje tzv. prvog doba islama. To je doba protumačeno kao epoha gotovo potpune ravnopravnosti muškarca i žene.

 

  

Prof. dr. sc. Enes Karić

 

Enes Karić was born in Višnjevo, near Travnik. After finishing his education in Gazi Husrev-beg Madrasa, he was admitted to the Faculty of Political Sciences and to the Faculty of Islamic Sciences on University of Sarajevo, which he gradu- ated from in 1981 and 1982. He received his Masters degree on the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Sarajevo. On the Faculty of Philology of Bel- grade University he received his Ph.D. On several occasions he attended various specialisations on Al-Azhar University, Yale and Oxford. He is a well known par- ticipant of symposiums dedicated to philosophy , hermeneutical /tafsir/ re- searches, historical interpretations of holy scriptures (especially the Holy Qur’an), globalisation etc. Today Dr. Karić is a Professor on the Faculty of Islamic Sciences in Sarajevo. He is especially dedicated to a specific area of his expertise, History of Interpretation of Qur’an and the Metodology of Interpretation of Qur’an.

 

 

islamic Modernism and the Treatment of Women

 

Islamic modernism had its témata and narratives, such as Islam and modern society, Islam and the state, Islam and the West, Islam and techniques ... Among its major issues that aroused Islamic moderni- sm, particularly outstanding examination of the role of the Muslim woman in the modern era. Criticism of traditional views of the role of women and the recognition of its contemporary engagement are at the very top intellectual interests of the Islamic modernism. In this respect the Islamic modernism produced a very rich literature. On the one hand, many writers and authors seek to stop Islam interpreted as “male” faith. On the other hand, there is a re-evaluation of Western notions of gender equality, as well as traditi- onal Islamic vision of cooperation of men and women, mothers and children, sisters and brothers, etc. Special topics of Islamic modernism in the affirmation of women in the modern era was formulated thro- ugh a new vision called. First era of Islam. This is interpreted as the time periods of almost complete equ- ality of men and women.

 

 

 

   

Dr. sc. Elmira Muratova

 

Elmira Muratova danas obnaša dužnost direktorice Krimskog mirovnog in- stituta, Katedra za političke znanosti, Taurida. Godinu dana je bila počasni asi- stent Škole slavenskih jezika i istočnoeuropske studije, University College Lon- don (UK). Doktorska disertacija: Politička analiza islamskog preporoda na Kri- mu. Njezini glavni interesi su islam i politika, politički islam, islamski preporod u post-sovjetskom prostoru, islamski svijet u modernoj politici, međuetnički i međuvjerski odnosi na Krimu, dijalog među religijama i kulturama; medijii po- litika. Dobitnica je brojnih priznanja i nagrada.

 

  

Uloga krimske Tatarke u očuvanju etničkog identiteta

 

Krimske su Tatarke uvijek imale zapaženu ulogu u društvenim procesima nacije. Poznato je da su tije- kom Krimskog rata (1443.-1783.) mnoge ženske predstavnice vladajuće dinastije i plemstva imale utjecaj na politički i kulturni život države. One su korespondirale s vladarima susjednih zemalja (npr. Rusije i Polj- ske), imale utjecaj na proces odlučivanja unutar zemlje, bile pokroviteljice umjetnosti i vjerskog razvoja. Krimske Tatarke, pripadnice puka, bile su ključni element u prenošenju kulturnih normi nadolazećim ge- neracijama. Učile su svoju djecu temeljima islamske vjere, moralnim načelima islama, normama međuge- neracijske i međuspolne komunikacije. Pored toga, mnoge su bile učiteljice u muslimanskim školama (mektebima), naročito u ženskim.

U modernim vremenima nastavile su igrati presudnu ulogu u društvu. Njihov doprinos bio je naročito vidljiv tijekom deportacije krimskih Tatara u svibnju 1944. godine. Pod komunističkim pritiskom, bez po- drške institucija u razvoju nacionalnog obrazovnog sustava, jezika, kulture, žene su učinile sve kako bi očuvale nacionalni identitet naroda. Mnoge od njih obrazovale su se i radile kao učiteljice, liječnice, inži- njerke, glazbenice, pokušavajući održati obiteljske tradicije, a u isto vrijeme bile su aktivne u društvu. Mnoge su se žene, također, okušale i u politici, te bile članice Pokreta krimskih Tatara za povratak u do- movinu.

Nakon povratka u domovinu, na svojim su leđima osjetile teškoće u procesu repatrijacije. Dugo vreme- na, mnoge od njih, bile su glavni izvor prihoda svojih obitelji i to je sigurno izmijenilo tradicionalni život krimsko-tatarske obitelji. Danas se suočavaju s nekoliko glavnih problema. Prvi od njih je kako pronaći ravnotežu između obaveza tradicionalne obitelji i aktivnog društvenog života. Drugi problem je kako saču- vati etnički identitet djece, jezik, kulturne norme i vjerske vrijednosti. Društveni i ekonomski uvjeti, kultur- no okruženje i utjecaj globalne kulture čine ulogu žena težom i proturječnijom.

 

 

 

 Dr. sc. Elmira Muratova

 

Positions

Oct. 2007 – Jan. 2008 – Honorary Research Assistant, School of Slavonic and

East European Studies, University College London (UK)

2006 – Present – Director, Crimean Peace Institute, Chair of Political Science,

Taurida National V. Vernadsky University (Ukraine)

 

Education

Ph.D, Political Science, Taurida National V. Vernadsky University, 2004

Dissertation: A Political Analysis of the Islamic Revival in Crimea.

M.A., History, Taurida National V. Vernadsky University, 2000

Diploma: The History of Islam in Crimea

B.A., History, Taurida National V. Vernadsky University, 1999

Main Research and Teaching Interests – Islam and politics, political Islam, Islamic revival in the post-Soviet

space, Islamic world in the modern politics, interethnic and interfaith relations in Crimea, dialogue be-

tween religions and civilizations; media and politics.

 

 

The role of the Crimean Tatar Women in Preserving of ethnic identity

 

The Crimean Tatar women always played a significant role in social processes of the nation. It is known that during the Crimean Khanate (1443-1783) many female representatives of the ruling dynasty and no- ble families influenced political and cultural life of the state. They were involved in correspondence with rulers of the neighboring states (for example, Russia and Poland), influenced the process of decision-ma- king inside the country, patronized art and religion’s development. Ordinary Crimean Tatar women were the key element of transmission of cultural norms to subsequent generations. They taught their children the foundations of Islamic faith, the moral tenets of Islam, the norms of inter-generational and inter-gen- der communication. Besides, many of them were teachers at Muslim schools (mektebe) particularly desi- gned for girls.

In modern times Crimean Tatar women continued to play a crucial role in the society. Their impact was extremely noticeable during the deportation of the Crimean Tatar people conducted in May 1944. Being under the Communist pressure, without institutional support to develop national educational system, language, culture, women did their best to preserve the ethnic identity of the people. Many of them got higher education and worked as teachers, doctors, engineers, musicians, trying to keep family traditions and play an active social role at the same time. Many women were active in political life as well. For in- stance, they were members of the Crimean Tatar national movement for return to their homeland.

After coming back to homeland Crimean Tatar women take away on their shoulders basic difficulties of the repatriation process. They appeared to be better (than men) adapted to new conditions of the post- Soviet reality. For a long time many of them became the only source of income for their families and this certainly changed the traditional way of life of the Crimean Tatar family. Nowadays Crimean Tatar women face several main problems. The first of them is a problem of finding a balance between traditional family obligations and active social life in which they involved. The second problem is attempt to save ethnic identity of their children, preserve language, cultural norms and religious values. Social and economic conditions, cultural environment and influence of global culture make the task of the women more diffi- cult and contradicted.

 

 

 Mr. sc. Amina Šiljak Jesenković

 

Amina Šiljak Jesenković je rođena u Sarajevu. Filozofski fakultet, Odsjek za orijentalistiku – (diplomirani orijentalista, turkolog i arabista), završava 1989. godine, a poslijediplomski studij iz lingvistike (magistar lingvističkih znanosti), također na Filozofskom fakultetu u Sarajevu, 2003. godine. Njezin se znanstve- no-istraživački rad kreće u okvirima filologije (turski jezik i književnost). Bavi se i književnim i stručnim prevodilaštvom s turskog i na turski jezik. Objavila je veliki broj radova, prijevoda i eseja. Sudjelovala je u prijevodu Historije Osman- ske države i civilizacije I i II. Zaposlena je na Orijentalnom institutu u Sarajevu kao viši stručni suradnik – turkolog.

 

  

Osmanska žena – između pučkog stereotipa i elitističkog ostvarenja (poimanje) žene u paremiologiji turskog i bosanskog jezika i uspješne žene (pjesnikinje, kompozitorice) u osmanskom društvu

 

Tragom podataka koje u osmanskim pjesničkim spomenicama nalazimo o osmanskim pjesnikinjama, koncentrirajući se na kratke zabilješke o njihovu životu pokušat ćemo ukazati na poziciju (nažalost rijetkih, ali ipak prisutnih) žena u javnom životu tradicionalne, na šeriatskim zakonima temeljene Osmanske drža- ve, koja je, podsjećamo obuhvatala i neka područja Balkana. Zanimljivo je da osmanski biografi o većin- skim osmanskim pjesnicima (muškarcima) bilježe podatke o njihovom književnom doprinosu, njihovoj karijeri, o pozicijama na kojim su se nalazili, o njihovom sudjelovanju u vojnama, dok – kada je riječ o poetesama – za njih su, pored njihovog književnog opusa bitni podaci o njihovim rodbinskim i bračnim vezama, i eventualno pripadnosti derviškom redu.

S druge strane, kroz bogatu paremiološku građu (poslovice) bosanskog i turskog jezika, pokušat ćemo odrediti prisutne stereotipe, odnosno koju to poziciju ženi određuje pučka svijest ili pučko iskustvo. Tako- đer, i u narodnoj književnosti crno-bijelih likova heroina je ukliještena između dvije uloge: žrtve (patenice koja ne izriče stav, i time stiče status idealne heroine) ili zlostavljačice (zla žena, vračara, spletkarošica). I sve to, kao baštinici ovoga civilizacijskog kruga tvrdimo, tobože građeno na dubokom naslijeđu islama, gdje je sasvim jasno pravno utvrđeno pravo žene na opredjeljenje, na sudjelovanje u javnom životu, na vlasništvo, islamu gdje je postavljena rodna ravnopravnost u obavezama obredoslovlja i gdje je etičkim temeljem postavljeno pravilo da je džennet pod nogama majke.

Mi ćemo u našem radu tek registrirati zamijećene fenomene, i zapitati koliko je sama žena iz našeg ci- vilizacijskog kruga doprinijela dobijanju ovakve uloge, odnosno koliko se, pristajući na dodijeljenu ulogu, i sama odrekla one koja joj u temelju pripada, koliko se “zaigrala” i zakovala u datom liku. Ili koliko je i zašto “pod tepih sakrila” ili “pod noge bacila” princip o putu na kojem je džennet pod majčinim nogama.

 

  

Mr. sc. Amina Šiljak Jesenković

 

Amina Šiljak Jesenković was born in Sarajevo. In 1989 she graduated from the Faculty of Arts, Section for Oriental studies (Turkish and Arabic language) in Sarajevo and in 2003 she finished her postgraduate studies in linguistics at the same Faculty. Her scientific research is in philology (Turkish Language and Literature). She is interpreter for Turkish language and translates literature and text-books from Turkish and to Turkish language. She published many pa- pers, translations and essays. She participated in the translation of the History of Ottoman State and Civilization part I and II. She works at the Oriental Insti- tute in Sarajevo as Senior Associate for Turkish language and literature.

 

 The ottoman Woman – Between Popular Stereotype and elitistic realisation – notion of Woman in Turkish and Bosnian Paremiology and the Successful Women (Poetesses, Compositors) in the ottoman Society

 

In this paper we will try to indicate the position of women in the public life of the traditional, Sharia based Ottoman state that included certain parts of the Balkans (although such instances were rare, but still present). Therefore, we will use the data in Ottoman poetical biographies (tezkire) about Ottoman poetesses, and concentrate on short remarks about their life. It is interesting that Ottoman biographers, while speaking about the majority of Ottoman poets (men), bring information about their literary contri- butions, career, positions, involvement in military campaigns. On the other hand, when they are speaking about the poetesses, they concentrate on their family and marriage connections, and sometimes on their Sufi order affiliations, apart from their literary works.

Through the analysis of the abundant paremiological material (proverbs) in Bosnian and Turkish, we shall try to define present sterotypes, that is, the position that folk consciousness or folk experience allo- cated to women. In the popular literature of black-and-white characters, the woman is trapped between two roles: victim (the wretch with no attitude, thus an ideal character), or the oppressor (the evil woman, sorcerer, plotter). And all of that is supposedly based on the rich Islamic heritage, where, actually, the gender equality was set up as a rule in the religious rites and where the ethic motto declares that the paradise is under mother’s feet.

This paper will only mark the mentioned phenomena, and pose a question how much the woman from our civilisational circle contributed to obtaining such a role. By accepting the allocated role, did she give up the one essentially belonging to her, and did she allow to be played and nailed to the given character? Why and how did she “hide under the rug” or “cast under her feet” the principle about the journey in which the paradise lies under mother’s feet?

 

 

  

Hfz. mr. sc. Behija Durmišević

 

Behija Durmišević je rođena u Sarajevu gdje je stekla osnovno obrazovanje, završila Gazi Husrev-begovu medresu i Fakultet islamskih nauka. Hafiz je Kur’ana. Završila je postdiplomski studij i magistrirala na Filozofskom fakultetu u Sarajevu, na odsijeku za filozofiju i sociologiju. Autor je knjige “Ljubav kao princip spoznaje u mišljenju Rabije el-Adevijje i Meistera Eckharta”. S engle- skog jezika prevela je knjige: “Islam kao alternativa” Murada Hofmanna i “Ra- bija el Adevijja – život i djelo Rabije i drugih žena sufijki u islamu” Margareth Smith. Također, prevela je više studija i članaka s egleskog i arapskog jezika. Učestvovala je na više domaćih i međunarodnih simpozijuma. Od 1998. godine zaposlena je u Gazi Husrev-begovoj medresi.

 

 Tematizacija pitanja muslimanke u BiH tijekom 20. stoljeća

 

U bošnjačkoj literaturi objavljenoj u prvim decenijama XX stoljeća često se pisalo o obnovi islamske misli. Osnovni poziv obnove sastojao se u vraćanju izvornim učenjima islama te je izražavao dva osnovna zahtjeva: čišćenje islama od zabluda i pogrešnih shvatanja koja su se u njega u toku dugog perioda uvukla i obnovu idžtihada uz novu razradu islamskih koncepcija. S druge strane, XX stoljeće na općoj razini snažno je postavilo pitanje identiteta muškaraca i žena. Postavilo je pitanje njihovog odnosa kroz kritičko preispi- tivanje obrazaca kulture i utjecaja tradicije i religije na položaj žene u državi idruštvu. Još u prvim deceni- jama XX stoljeća tema “Žena u islamu” ulazi u krug otvorenih pitanja na koja se nude različiti, često među- sobno isključivi odgovori. Ova tema pripada vrućim mjestima otvorene debate kako na relaciji muslimani- nemuslimani, tako i unutar samog bošnjačkog društva. Na temelju proučavanja pitanje žene u bošnjačkom razumijevanju islama u XX stoljeću, može se kazati da je interpretativno naslijeđe islama, isprepleteno sa patrijarhalnim kulturnim naslijeđem i političkim prilikama, u velikoj mjeri utjecalo na status žene u poro- dičnom i javnom životu kao i u politici, osporavajući joj dugo vremena pravo i mogućnost da ravnopravno sudjeluje u privatnoj i javnoj sferi djelovanja, a posebice na pozicijama odlučivanja. Danas, sa sigurnošću može se ustvrditi da je evidentan intelektualni angažman muslimanskih intelektualki i intelektualaca koji su tokom niza zadnjih desetljeća ulagali veliki napor za nadrastanje inkapsulirane islamske misli. Musli- manka intelektualka u Bosni Hercegovini dugo već zna da istinske vjere nema bez razumijevanja kako teksta izvora islama (Kur’ana i suneta) tako i konteksta u kojem ona živi. Muslimanka koja želi svoje stanje i svoj položaj poboljšati, treba biti svjesna da njezin muslimanski identitet nije zatvoren, nije sveden na krute i nepromjenjive principe, nego da se temelji na stalnom dinamičkom i dijalektičkom kretanju između izvora vjere i ambijenta u kojem živi. A Islamsko učenje je jasno: U pogledu društvenih poslova (muame- lat), sva sredstva, tradicije, vještine i običaji koji, po sebi ili na način na koji su upotrijebljeni, nisu suprotni islamskim pravilima, ne samo da su prihvatljivi nego su po definiciji islamski. Tako u okviru evropskog okruženja, muslimanka treba vršiti izbor u skladu sa svojim otvorenim identitetom. Smatram da će na taj način razviti, oblikovati i poboljšati sliku svog sadašnjeg i budućeg evropskog identiteta.

 

  Hfz. mr. sc. Behija Durmišević

 

Behija Durmišević is born in Sarajevo (B&H). She finished primary education, Gaza Husrefbeg madrasa and the Faculty of Islamic Studies in Sarajevo. She is Hafiz of the Quran. She completed her post-graduate studies and got her mas- ter’s degree at the Faculty of Philosophy in Sarajevo, section of Philosophy and Sociology. She is author of the book “Love as a Principle of Cognition in the Opin- ion of Rabija el-Adevijje and Meister Eckhart.” She translated from English the book “Islam as Alternative” by Murad Hofmann and “Rabija el Adevijja- Life and Work of Rabija and Other Sufi Women in Islam” by Margareth Smith. She trans- lated as well several studies and articles from English and Arab. She participated in several national and international symposia. Since 1998 she works at the Gazi- Husrefbeg madrasa in Sarajevo.

 

 

Thematization of Muslim Woman issue in B&H during the 20th Century

 

In the Bosniak literature published in the first decades of the twentieth century is often written on the renewal of Islamic thought. Basic call restoration consisted in returning the original teachings of Islam, and he expressed two basic requirements: clean Islam from mistakes and misconceptions that have been with him during the long period of renewal and ijtihad encased with the new development of Islamic con- cepts. On the other hand, the twentieth century, at a general level, strongly raised the issue of identity of men and women. Raised the question of their relations through a critical examination of the forms of culture and the influence of tradition and religion on the position of women in the state and society. Back in the early decades of the twentieth century theme “Women in Islam” entered a number of open ques- tions, which are provided by different, often mutually exclusive answers. This topic belongs to hot places of open debate between Muslim-non-Muslim as well as within the Bosnian society. On the basis of study- ing the issue of women in the Bosnian understanding of Islam in the twentieth century, we can say that the interpretative heritage of Islam, intertwined with patriarchal cultural heritage and political conditions, to a large extent had affected the status of women in family and public life and in politics, contesting her for the long time the right and the opportunity to participate as an equal in the private and public spheres of activity, particularly in decision-making positions. Today, surely we can say that there is an obvious in- tellectual engagement of Muslim Women and Men intellectuals who had invested during the last decades great efforts for the overgrowth of encapsulated Islamic thought. Muslim Woman intellectual in Bosnia- Herzegovina knows for the long time that there is no true faith without understanding of the text of the sources of Islam (the Qur’an and Sunnah) as well as the context in which she lives.

Muslim woman who wants to improve her condition and her position, should be aware that her Mus- lim identity is not closed, it is not reduced to a rigid and unchangable principles, but it is based on con- tinuous dynamic and dialectical motion between the source of faith and the environment in which she lives. The Islamic teaching is clear: In sphere of Social Affairs (muamelat), all resources, traditions, skills and practices which, by itself or in the manner in which they are used, are not contradict with the Islamic rules, are not only acceptable but are Islamic by definition. So in the European environment, a Muslim woman should make selection in accordance with her open identity. I believe that in this way to develop, shape and enhance the image of her current and future European identity

 

 

 

  Dr. sc. Elmira Akhmetova

 

Elmira Akhmetova je stručni suradnik u Međunarodnom institutu za na- predne islamske studije (IAIS), Malezija, i doktorska kandidatkinja na historiji i civilizaciji na Međunarodnom islamskom univerzitetu u Maleziji (IIUM). Objavi- la je svoju magistarsku tezu “Ideja muslimanskog jedinstva u dobu nacionaliz- ma: Komparativna studija koncepta umme u djelima Muse Jarullaha i Saida Nursija”, a njenu posljednju knjigu “Islam u Rusiji: Historijske činjenice i suvre- meni razvoj”, IAIS je objavio u Maleziji 2010. Napisala je I veliki broj stručnih i naučnih radova. Sudjelovala je na brojnim naučnim, međunarodnim i doma- ćim kongresima i simpozijima.

 

 

 Položaj žene muslimanke u rusiji- Stvarnost i mogućnosti

 

Ovaj rad je pregled društvenog položaja žene u Ruskoj federaciji s posebnim naglaskom na društvene aktivnosti Udruženja žena muslimanki Tatarstana, koje je osnovano 2005. godine u Kazanu. U prvom dije- lu predavanja predstavit ćemo općenito profil žene muslimanke u Rusiji, njezino prošlo i sadašnje društve- no i političko stanje, te razliku između nje i žene muslimanke u drugim europskim zemljama.

Pretpostavlja se da muslimani u Rusiji nisu stranci imigranti, već obični građani koji ovdje stoljećima žive uživajući jednaka politička, obrazovna i socijalna prava kao i drugi građani ove zemlje. Temeljem pri- mjera iz prošlosti informirat ćemo vas da je politički, socijalni i obrazovni status žene bio prilično visok u ranijim muslimanskim društvima u Ruskoj federaciji. Trenutno je velika većina žena muslimanki visoko obrazovana, društveno aktivna i integrirana u rusko društvo. U drugom dijelu predavanja govorit ćemo o izazovima s kojima se žene muslimanke danas u Rusiji suočavaju kao što su nedostatak javne sigurnosti, vjerska, etnička i rasna diskriminacija kao i osnovne poteškoće u islamskom odgoju djece zahvaljujući ne- dostatku islamskog obrazovnog sustava u većini gradova u zemlji. Dodatno ruski zakon s nazivom “Borba protiv djelovanja ekstremista” (Zakon o ekstremizmu) koji je usvojen u lipnju 2002.godine, a nakon 11. rujna, negativno je utjecao na javnu sigurnost i stanje muslimanki. U zadnjem dijelu prezentacije predsta- vit ćemo neka rješenja za poboljšanje društvenog statusa muslimanki u Ruskoj federaciji i to na primjeru aktivnosti Udruženja žena muslimanki Tatarstana. Potičući muslimanke da budu aktivne u društvenom, javnom I kulturnom životu zemlje ovo Udruženje ima za cilj jačanje morala, promociju statusa majčinstva, jačanje kvalitete obrazovanja i odgoja nove generacije, te poticanje vrijednosti obitelji. Ostvarenje tih ci- ljeva se demonstrira na primjerima projekata koje provodi Udruženje zadnjih nekoliko godina.

 

 

 Dr. sc. Elmira Akhmetova

 

Elmira Akhmetova was born in Tatarstan, Russia, is currently a PhD candi- date in History and Civilization at International Islamic University Malaysia (II- UM). She obtained her first MA in Tatar philology and history at Kazan State University and served as a lecturer of Oriental literature at the same university, and also as a lecturer of Tatar literature at the Academic College, which is affili- ated to Kazan State University, from 1995 to 1997. She obtained her second degree in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) at IIUM and later completed her second MA in Islamic history at the same university between 2004 and 2007. Her MA thesis entitled Ideas of Muslim Unity at the Age of Nationalism: A Comparative Study of the Concept of the Ummah in the Writings of Musa Jarullah and Said Nursi was published in Germany by Lambert Academic Publishing under the same title in 2009. Her latest book, Islam in Russia: Historical Facts and Modern

Developments, is due to be published by the IAIS in 2013.

 

 

Status of Muslim Women is russia: reality and Prospects

 

This paper is a review of the social status of women in the Russian Federation with a special reference to the social activities of the Association of Muslim Women of Tatarstan, established in 2005 in Kazan. The first part of the paper presents a general profile of Muslim women in Russia, their past and present social and political condition; and their distinction from Muslim women living in other European countries. It suggests that Muslims in Russia are not alien immigrants, but ordinary citizens of the country who live in their native lands for many centuries and currently enjoy equal political, educational and social rights with other citizens of the country. Based on the examples from the past, the paper informs that the political, social and educational status of women was quite high in earlier Muslim societies living in the modern territory of the Russian Federation. Currently, the overwhelming majority of Muslim women is highly edu- cated, socially active, and an integral part of the Russian society. The second part of the paper talks about the challenges the Muslim women are facing today in Russia such as the lack of safety in public, religious, ethnic and racial discriminations, as well as essential difficulties in upbringing children in a Islamic way due to the absence of Islamic educational system in many major cities of the country. In addition, the Russian law entitled “On Fighting Extremist Activity” (Extremism Law), adopted in June 2002 after the September

11 attacks in the USA, affected negatively on public safety and well-being of Muslim women. The last part of the paper comes out with some solutions to enhance the social status of Muslim women in the Russian Federation on the example of the activities of the Association of Muslim Women of Tatarstan. Through inspiring Muslim women to be active in social, public and cultural lives of the country, this society aims at strengthening morality, promoting the status of motherhood, strengthening quality of education and up- bringing of a new generation, and encouraging the value of family. The realization of these aims is being demonstrated on the examples of the projects carried out by the association in the past few years.

 

 

 

 

  

Prof. dr. sc. Şaban Ali Düzgün

 

Profesor Düzgün je diplomirao 1989. godine na Teološkom fakultetu Ankar- skog sveučilišta. Na istom je fakultetu počeo poslijediplomski studij. Jedan pe- riod istraživanja prilikom pripreme teze proveo je u SOAS u Londonu, a dokto- rirao je na temu “Odnos Bog-Svijet kod Nesefija i islamskih filozofa”. Promovi- ran u zvanje docenta 1999., a u školskoj 2000-2001., u okviru programa raz- mjene sveučilišnih predavača, boravio je na Sveučilištu Gregoryan (Rim); u školskoj 2003-2004. radio je na Sveučilištu Georgetown (Woodstock Theologi- cal Center, Washington). 2005. promoviran je u zvanje sveučilišnog profesora, a 2007. kao Fulbrightov znanstveni kadar dobio je namještenje na Birmingham Southern College (Alabama, USA). Trenutno obavlja dužnost šefa Katedre za Kelam (Islamsku apologetiku) na Teološkom fakultetu Ankarskog sveučilišta.

 

 

Dekodiranje žene muslimanke u okviru njene metafizičke superiornosti i tradicionalne inferiornosti

 

U privatnom kao i u društvenom životu, vjera osposobljava svoje članove da se nose sa izazovima. Sa svojim teološko/metafizičkim principima vjera prvo na teorijskoj a potom i na praktičnoj razini daje okvi- re/uzore po kojima možemo shvatiti i tumačiti ta pitanja. Neosporno se može reći da jedno od provokativ- nih pitanja s kojim se suoćavaju muslimani i muslimanke na zapadu kao i na istoku, a potrebna mu je du- blja analiza, je pitanje jednakosti među spolovima i nuspojave koje slijede. Vrijednujući Kuranske osnove po pitanju jednakosti spolova i individualne slobode moramo biti spremni na inovacije. Umjesto da poten- cira spolnu jednakost časni Kuran tvrdi da je svakome dodijeljena drugačija prevlast/nadmoć (fadl) i nagla- šava da će se do maksimalnog dostignuća doći onda ako se muskarac i žena budu ponašali prema tome. Slijedeći ajet u Kuranu se odnosi na tu temu: I ne poželite ono čime je Allah neke od vas odlikovao. Muš- karcima pripada nagrada za ono što oni urade, a ženama za ono što one urade. I Allaha iz obilja njegova molite. – Allah, zaista, sve dobro zna!” (Nisa 4/32). U ovom slučaju je nemoguće zaključiti da je žena u podređenom položaju kao spol i vrsta sa stanovišta Kurana. Također je nemoguće uskladiti patrijarhalni odnos muslimanske zajednice prema ženama sa Kuranskom doktrinom koja dodjeljuje svakome njemu/ njoj uloge i drži ih dakle odgovornim za ono što su učinili. Jasno je da na poljima obrazovanja, zapošljava- nja, razvoda, poligamije i sličnih tema koje su direktno vezane za ovaj problem, praksa u muslimanskim zemljama je različita, i to nam pokazuje da izvor ovog problema nije teološke prirode već kulturološke i tradicionalne. Tako će se moj rad pozabaviti sa reinterpretacijom srodnih Kuranskih ajeta koji su do sada bili predstavljeni kao teologijsko/metafizička osnova za ovo pitanje. Prihvaćam kao gotovu činjenicu da su društvene uloge pripisane ženama muslimankama na zapadu jako povezane s ovim teološkim osnovama i reinterpretiranje istih će nas osposobiti da rekonstruiramo društvenu ulogu koju očekujemo od žena mu- slimanki i na zapadu i na istoku.

 

 

  Prof. dr. sc. Şaban Ali Düzgün

 

Prof Düzgün graduated in 1989 from the University in Ankara – Faculty of Theology. At the same University he stated his postgraduate studies. He spent some time at SAOS London for his research and preparing the thesis and he took his doctoral degree on the subject “Relationship between God and the World by Nesefia and Islamic Philosophers”. In 1999 he became docent,  and in the school year of 2000/2001, in an exchange of university lecturers, he worked at the University of Georgetown (Woodstock TheologicalCenter, Washington). In 2005 he became university professor and in 2007 as Fulbright s scientific staff he got a job at the Birmingham Southern College (Alabama, USA). Currently he is head of Kelam Departement (Islamic apologetic) at the University of Ankara.

 

 

Decoding Muslim Woman with her Metaphysical Superiority and Traditional inferiority

 

Both in personal and communal/civic life, religion enable its members to cope with the challenging questions. With its theological/metaphysical principles religion first in theoretical then in practical level gives them patterns so that they can conceive and interpret these issues. Doubtless to say that, one of the challenging questions facing both male and female Muslims in the West and East as well and requiring a deep analysis is the issue of gender equality and byproduct issues that follow it. Evaluating the Qur’anic bases of gender equality and individual freedom we must be ready to hear innovative things. Rather than emphasizing gender equality, the Holy Qur’an affirms that each has been given different supremacies (fadl), and emphasize that the utmost achievement (nasîb) will come if male and female behave accord- ingly. The related Qur’anic verse reads as follow: “Do not seek to gain (exchange) what God has favored some to women and some to men. To men allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn” (Nisa 4/32). In this case, it is impossible to see women in a lower status both as gender and class from Qur’anic standpoint. It is, also, impossible to compromise the patriarchal attitude of Muslim communities towards women with the Qur’anic doctrine that assigns each his/her roles and hold them responsible for what they have done accordingly. It is clear that in the fields of education, employment, divorce, polyga- my and similar issues that are directly related to this matter, Muslim countries have different practices, which demonstrates that the source of the issue is not theological but cultural and traditional. So my pa- per will dwell on reinterpreting related Qur’anic verses that have so far been presented as theological/ metaphysical bases for this issue. I take it for granted that the communal/civic roles attributed to Muslim women in the West are very much related to these theological bases. And reinterpret them will enable us to reconstruct the civic role we are to await from Muslim women both in the West and East.

 

 

   

Prof. dr. sc. Nadira Mirza

 

Nadira je ravnateljica Škole za cjeloživotno obrazovanje i Ureda javnih i društvenih angažiranosti na sveučilištu u Bradfordu. Članica je brojnih nacio- nalnih i međunarodnih odbora koji se bave podizanjem obrazovnih postignuća i poboljšanjem zdravstvene skrbi u lokalnim zajednicama. Predstavlja Sveučili- šte na nekoliko strateških savjetodavnih odbora u Engleskoj.

 

 

Uloga muslimanki u oblikovanju proživljenog iskustva Islama u stalno mijenjajućoj Europi budućnosti

 

Stupanj civilizacije jednog naroda često se mjeri prema uvjetima u kojima žive žene. Indikatori uključu- ju kvote smrtnosti djeteta i majke pri porođaju, a slijede razine pismenosti i doprinosa žena u gospodar- stvu. Prisutnost žena na najvišim položajima u upravama poduzeća, na izvršnim funkcijama, postotak žena liječnika, prfofesora, služe nam kao indikator uspjeha žena i njihovog statusa/položaja. Zaključujemo da je smrtnost među ženama visoka u nerazvijenom svijetu, a njiova uloga u političkom i ekonomskom vodstvu je zanemariva. Odmah razina percepcije i vrijednost koja se odnosi na ulogu i sposobnosti žene musliman- ke postaje očita i globalni utjecaj njezinog doprinosa se ignorira ili gubi. Ovaj rad će nam dati uvid u ulogu žena muslimanki u oblikovanju proživljenog iskustva Islama u budućoj Europi koja se stalno mijenja.

 

  

Prof. dr. sc. Nadira Mirza

 

Nadira is Dean of the School of Lifelong Education and Development and Director of Public and Community engagement at the University of Bradford. Nadira sits on a number of national and international committees charged with raising educational achievement and improving health care for local com- munities. Her particular passion is the development and achievement of Paki- stan heritage communities in Bradford and Europe. Nadira represents the Uni- versity on a number of strategic advisory committees in England.

 

 The role of Muslim Women in Shaping the Lived experience of islam in an everchanging europe of the Future

 

A nations level of ‘civilisation’ is often measured by the condition of its women. Indicators include rates of infant and maternal mortality followed by levels of literacy and contribution to the economy. The num- ber of high level board appointments, chief executive positions, doctors and professors are used as an indicator of women’s success and status. To generalise; Muslim women’s mortality is high in the develop- ing world and their political and economic leadership is low in the first world. Instantly a hierarchy of perception and value concerning the role and abilities of Muslim women becomes apparent and the glob- al impact of their contribution is ignored or lost. This paper will provide some insights into the role of Muslim women in shaping the lived experience of Islam in an ever changing Europe of the future.

 

 

  

Prof. dr. sc. Fahira Fejzić Čengić

 

Fahira Fejzić Čengić je rođena u Visokom, BiH. Diplomirala je na Fakultetu političkih nauka na Odsjeku žurnalistika 1985. godine. U zvanje vanrednog pro- fesora izabrana je u maju 2011. godine. Član je uređivačkog kolegija časopisa “Godišnjak” BZK Preporod te član redakcije časopisa “Muallim” i “Godišnjak” BZK Preporod. Napisala je veliki broj stručnih i naučnih radova te četiri knjige, od kojih se izdvajaju: Medijska globalizacija svijeta (2004), Uvod u teoriju infor- macija (2008) – udžbenik za studente, Medijska kultura u BiH (2009). Trenutno je šef Odsjeka komunikologija / novinarstvo na Fakultetu političkih nauka.

 

 

 Medijska pismenost – duhovna uspravnost žene u postmodernim tokovima – komparativni pogled

 

Svako vrijeme isijava svoj suh. Hegel bi to kazao da svako vrijeme ima svoju duhovnu vertikalu. Svoju zakonomjernost. Duh našeg vremena, nakon modernosti, duh postmodernosti je duh masovnih medija. Nezamisliv je naš svagdanji život bez vijesti, interneta, medija, komunikacija, tehnologija...Važan zahtjev u tom smislu je da žene iz ovog vremena budu medijski pismene. Zašto? To je nov termin, definiran u 1992. godini u EU, kasnije razrađivan u više navrata na raznim kongresima, konferencijama i skupovima. Žene moraju biti klasično pismene (tradicionalno pismene) ali i medijski pismene kako ne bi bile lahkovjerne žrtve medijskih manipulacija, žrtve predrasuda ili žrtve neznanja. Medijska pismenost se usavršava cijeli život. Uz pomoć medijske pismenosti ličnost lakše bira, odbacuje, odvaja bitno od nebitnog.

Drugi ulazni termin ove rasprave je duhovna uspravnost. Duhovnost je preogromna. Nedostižna. Ko- smičkih razmjera i neograničenih dimenzija, što ga je baviti se njome uvijek pomalo naivno. Žene bi je trebale posjedovati, a to je kao stanje posjedovanja što više halal-znanja. Znanja o Allahu i Njegovom stvaranju, te o Njegovim stvorenjima. Dobrim i Zlim. To su i široka i brojna detaljna znanja o korisnome, praktičnom, o porodičnom, moralnom, znanja o dobru i znanja o dostojanstvu.Također, kao i medijska pismenost i duhovna uspravnost se usavršava cijeli život. I uz njenu pomoć ličnost lakše bira, pravilnije donosi odluke, odbacuje, odvaja bitno od nebitnog na pravilan način. Postmoderno doba je sinonim koji se kakogdje, u teorijama: u sociologiji, Afilozofiji, političkoj filozofiji, komunikologiji, pravu ili politologiji još naziva i postindustrijsko doba, postkapitalizam, vrijeme postranzicijskih tokova, ali i u različitim teolo- gijama kao mesijansko vrijeme, vrijeme Antkrista ili u islamskim akaidološkim raspravama nazvano Ahiri- Zeman, Posljednje Vrijeme... Vrijeme čekanja...Napokon, ulazni termin iz naslova moga izlaganja je i kom- parativni metod kao okvir, metodološki zahtjev ili moja želja da na otvorenom polju različitih i naizgled nespojivih ulaznih elemenata koji ulaze u raspravu sa ove konferencije iznesem. Medijska pismenost i duhovna uspravnost trebale bi danas obilježavati ženu muslimanku u geografiji Evrope. Za menr je to kon- tinent, politički projekt, geografsko-geopolitički određeni prostor i napokon, zavičaj većine nas ovdje pri- sutnih. A svakako životno zainteresiranih za svaki ovaj termin. U skladu i harmoniju uvezanih.

 

 

 Prof. dr. sc. Fahira Fejzić Čengić

 

Fahira Fejzić was born in Visoko (B&H). She graduated from the Faculty of Political Science at the Department of Journalism in 1985. She works as associ- ate professor since May 2011. She is member of the editorial board of the mag- azines “Godišnjak” BZK Preporod and “Muallim”. She wrote a great number of professional and scientific papers and four books: “Media Globalization of the World” (2004), “Introduction to the Theory of Information”(2008)-textbook for students, Culture of Media in B&H (2009). Currently she is Head of the Section for Mass Communication/Journalism at the Faculty of Political Sciences.

 

 

 

 Media Literacy – Spiritual Uprightness of Woman in Postmodern Streams – Comparative view

 

Every epoch exudes its spirit. Hegel would have said that every epoch has its spiritual vertical. Its regu- larity. The spirit of our times, after modernity, the postmodernity spirit is the spirit of the mass media. Our daily life is unimaginable without news, internet, media, communications, technology ... An important requirement in this regard for the women of this age to be the media literate. Why? It is a new term de- fined in the EU in 1992, later worked out on several occasions at various conferences and meetings. Women need to be classically written (traditionally written) but also has to be media literate so as not to be gullible victim of media manipulation, victim of prejudice or victim of ignorance. The Media literacy is the life time perfecting. The media literacy helps people choose, discards, separating important from the unimportant. The other input terminal of this debate is the spiritual uprightness. Spirituality is huge. Unat- tainable. Cosmic scale and unlimited dimension, which is to deal with it is always a bit naive. Women are supposed to have it – and that is like condition of having as much as possible of halal-knowledge. Knowl- edge about God and His creation, and of His creatures. Good and evil. These are both broad and numerous detailed knowledge of the useful, the practical, family the moral, knowledge about good and knowledge about dignity. Also, like the media literacy, the spiritual uprightness is the life time perfecting. And with its help one person chooses easier, more appropriate makes decisions, rejects, separats important from the unimportant in a proper manner.

Postmodern era is synonymous with (in theories in sociology, phyilosofy, political philosophy, commu- nication, law or political science,) also called post-industrial era, post-capitalism, time postransitional flows, but also in different theologies as Messianic time, the time of Antichrist or in the Islamic akaid- ological treatise called Ahir-Zeman, The last time ... The time of waiting ...

Finally, the input term from the title of my presentation is a comparative method as a framework, methodological requirement or my desire to open the field of different and seemingly disparate input ele- ments that enter into a discussion with this conference presents. Media literacy and spiritual uprightness should now mark the Muslim woman in the geography of Europe. For me this is continent, a political project, geographic, geopolitical certain space, and finally, the homeland of most of us present here. And certainly vitally interested in all this term. In accordance and harmony bounded.

 

 

 Dr. sc. Teuta Arifi

 

Teuta Arifi je rođena u Tetovu, Makedonija, gdje je stekla osnovno i srednje obrazovanje. Diplomirala je na Filološkom fakultetu u Prištini, Odsjek za alban- ski jezik i književnost. Magistrirala je na Filozofskom fakultetu u Skopju, dok je doktorsku disertaciju pod nazivom “Ličnost žene u albanskoj književnosti” obranila na Filološkom fakultetu u Skopju. Radila je kao docent na predmetu Albanska književnost na Katedri za albanski jezik i književnost Filološkog fakul- teta “Blaže Koneski” u Skopju. Jedan period je radila i kao dopisnica – novinar- ka za radio Deutsche Welle. Obnašala je dužnost potpredsjednice Vlade Meke- donije i ministrice EU integracija, a na posljednjim lokalnim izborima izabrana je za gradonačelnicu grada Tetova.

 

 

Društveni položaj žene muslimanke u Europi – trenutni položaj i kako ga poboljšati

 

Točan broj i sastav muslimanske populacije u Europi je nepoznat radi nedostatka službene statistike ali se procijenjuje da danas u Europi živi oko 15 miliona muslimana dok se Islam smatra jednom od najviše rastućih vjera u svijetu ako ju usporedimo sa drugim monoteističkim vjerama. Islam je univerzalna poruka data čovječanstvu od Boga preko poslanika Muhameda, s.a.v.s., i posvećena je muškoj i ženskoj populaci- ji na zemlji koji žive na različitim mjestima, govore različitim jezicima i njeguju različite kulturne vrijednosti. Europski muslimani predstavljaju jednu jako raznoliku mješavinu nacionalnosti, vjerske pripadnosti, filo- zofskih i političkih uvjerenja, sekularnih tendencija, jezika i kulturnih tradicija, tvoreći drugu po velićini vjersku grupaciju europskog multi-vjerskog društva. Europsko društvo kao cjelina gaji veliko nasljeđe svo- jih vrijednosti koje uključuje vjerovanje u ljudska prava, društvenu solidarnost, slobodnu ekonomiju, ba- lansirani ekonomski i društveni razvoj, poštivanje kulturnih, lingvističkih i vjerskih razlika i harmonične mješavine tradicije i napretka. Ljepota biti ženom muslimankom u Europi leži u slobodi življenja vjere kao racionalnog izvora osobne moralnosti ne radi izvorne kulture niti strogih normi ponašanja nametnutih od strane političkih i vjerskih vođa koja često rezultiraju psihološkom eksploatacijom i pomanjkanjem auto- nomije pojedinca i društva kao cjeline.

Žene muslimanke u Europi žive u demokratskim društvima koja se bore za jednakost spolova i jednakih prilika. U društvima koja se temelje na vladavini prava, spolne jednakosti, demokracije, mira i poštivanja različitosti, žena muslimanka ima veliku priliku dasudjeluje i bude integrirana u svekoliki politički, kulturni i ekonomski razvoj u Europi i mi ne smijemo propustiti te prilike odvajajući se dobrovoljno iz straha od akulturacije. Islam je traženje znanja i predanost Bogu kroz prakticiranje vjere što nas dugoročno osposo- bljava da izdržimo pritisak društvenih konvencija, da se borimo protiv stereotipa i društvenih predrasuda kreirajući bolju budućnost za sve nas.

Vjera izvire iz srca. Bog zna naše namjere i ako su naše namjere da stvaramo zdravo, mirno i napredno društvo za buduće generacije muslimana i nemuslimana, tada će to, ako Bog hoće, biti naša budućnost. Poslanik Muhammed, s.a.v.s., je rekao da obrazovanje djeteta počinje dvadeset godina prije njegovog rođenja.

Zato žene muslimanke u Europi i širom svijeta trebaju težiti ka tome da postanu poštovane pojedinke u društvu, da se obrazuju, da imaju pristojne poslove, da su integrirane u društveno ekonomske razvoje i da imaju sretne obitelji pod zaštitom Božjeg blagoslova. Žene muslimanke, kao i sve žene svijeta, imaju živu želju za uključivanjem u političke procese kreiranja pravednijih društava gdje politika služi javnom dobru, gdje se pojedinci bez obzira na njihovu vjersku pripadnost, spol i nacionalost tretiraju jednako i žive u kulturnim, ekonomskim i društveno naprednim društvima.

 

 Dr. sc. Teuta Arifi

 

Teuta Arifi was born in Tetovo, Macedonia where she finished primary and grammer school. She graduated from Faculty of Arts in Prishtina, Albanian lan- guage and Literature. She finished her master s degree at the Faculty of Arts in Skopje and worked at the department for Albanian language and literature at the Faculty of Philology “Blaže Koneski” in Skopje. For some time she worked as correspondent-journalist for Deutsche Welle. She was Deputy Prime Minis- ter of Macedonia and Minister of EU Intergrations and at the last local elec- tions she was elected mayor of Tetovo.

 

  

Social Status of a Muslim Woman in Europe – Current Position and how to Make a Progress

 

The exact size and composition of the Muslim population of Europe is unknown because of the lack of official statistics but it is estimated that there are 15 million Muslims living in Europe today while Islam is characterized as the fastest growing religion in the world compared to other monotheist religions . Islam is a universal message given to humanity by God through Prophet Mohammad pbuh and it is dedicated to both genders which populate the earth and live in different places, speak different languages and nourish different cultural values. European Muslims are a highly diverse mix of ethnicities, religious affiliation, philosophical beliefs, political persuasion, secular tendencies, languages and cultural traditions, constitu- ting the second largest religious group of Europe’s multi-faith society. European society as a whole fosters the great heritage of its values, which include the belief in human rights, social solidarity, free economy, a balanced economic and social development, respect for cultural, linguistic and religious differences and harmonious mix of tradition and progress.

The beauty of being a European Muslim woman lies in the freedom of following religion as a rational source of personal morality not because of the culture of origin nor strict norms of conduct imposed by political or religious leaders that often result with psychological exploitation and lack of autonomy for the individual and the society as a whole.

Muslim women in Europe live in democratic societies that strive for gender equality and equal oppor- tunities. In terms of societies that are based in rule of law, gender equality, democracy, freedom and respect for diversity, Muslim woman have great chances to participate and be integrated in the overall political, cultural and economical developments in Europe and we must not let go of this chances and segregate our selves voluntarily out of fear of acculturation. Islam is search for knowledge and adherence to God through religion practices which enables us in the long term, to withstand the pressures of social conventions to fight stereotypes and social prejudices and create a better future for all of us.

Faith derives from the heart. God knows our intentions and if our hearts intentions are to create he- althy, peaceful and progressed societies for the next generations of Muslim and non Muslim children than by God’s will this will be our future. Prophet Muhammad pbuh is cited to say that the education of a child begins twenty years before he is born.

Therefore Muslim women in Europe and everywhere in the globe should strive to become respected individuals who receive good education, have decent jobs, are integrated in socio- economic developments in their societies and have happy families in the shade of God’s blessings. Muslim women same as every woman in the world have a vivid desire to be involved in the political processes of creating more just so- cieties where politics serves to the common good, where individuals regardless of their religion, gender and ethnicity are treated equally and live in culturally, economic and socially progressed societies.

 

 

 

Sarah Joseph

 

Sarah Joseph je izvršna direktorica i osnivački urednik Emela, prvog musli- manskog lifestyle brenda. Prilikom stvaranja Emela ona je iz osnove stvorila koncept muslimanskog životnog stila, kreirajući seizmički pomak u načinu na koji su muslimani percipirani. Sarah je često nastupala u medijima uključujući BBC, CNN i Al-Jazeeru. Pozivana je od raznih tijela u ulozi stručnjaka za suvreme- ni život muslimana, te je držala predavanja širom svijeta. Dobila je nagradu OBE. U lipnju 2004. godine našla se na počasnoj listi povodom kraljičina rođendana, a nagrada joj je dodijeljena za doprinos međuvjerskom dijalogu i promociji žen- skih prava. Na listi Muslim Power 100 Cartera Andersona, proglašena je jednom od najutjecajnijih muslimanki/muslimana u Velikoj Britaniji, i jednom od 500 najutjecajnijih muslimanki/muslimana na svijetu od strane Georgetown univer- ziteta, te Jordanskog kraljevskog centra za islamske strateške studije.

 

  

 

Društveni položaj muslimanke u europi – stanje i kako ga poboljšati

 

Položaj žena je jedan od najutjecajnijih barometara jednakosti u društvu, a žene muslimanke su jedan od najvidljivijih simbola islama. Kao takav, položaj žene muslimanke u društvu demonstrira spremnost društva da se bavi islamom, širokom temom o jednakosti, položajem manjina, i odnosima prema vjeri. Zakon, ekonomska struktura, mediji i društveni trendovi, kao i odnosi javnosti prema ženama musliman- kama, pokazatelji su društvenog statusa žene muslimanke u društvu. Na mnoge je načine lako prikazati negativnu sliku: u mnogim europskim zemljama način oblačenja (hidžab) žene muslimanke je zabranjen, nedostaje društvena pokretljivost muslimanki i njihova politička aktivnost, negativan imidž u medijima, društveni pregledi trendova koji pokazuju negativan stav prema integraciji žene muslimanke u europska društva. Usprkos tome postoje žene muslimanke koje su uključene u civilno društvo, u politiku, u medije, kao i školovanije muslimanke od mnogih muškaraca. Gdje su te priče o uspjehu i kako one mogu biti svje- tionik za promjene?

 

  Sarah Joseph

 

Sarah Joseph is the CEO and founding editor of emel, the premier Muslim Lifestyle brand. By her creation of emel she fundamentally formed the concept of Muslim Lifestyle, creating a seismic shift in the way Muslims were perceived and marketed to. Sarah has made numerous media appearances including the BBC, CNN and Al-Jazeera. She has also appeared on the Doha Debates. Sarah has written for international newspapers including UK’s The Times and The Guard- ian, and scripted and recorded for a variety of BBC and independent radio pro- ductions. She has a regular slot on the BBC’s most listened to radio show, Chris Evans Breakfast. She was a member of the Downing Street delegation in the af- termath of the July 2005 London bombings and was a member of the Home Of- fice Task Force on extremism following on from that. She has been called in as an expert on contemporary Muslim life to numerous bodies and lectured at events

across the world. Sarah was awarded an OBE in the June 2004 Queen’s Birthday Honour’s List for services to inter-faith dialogue and the promotion of women’s rights. She was listed as one of the UK’s most powerful Muslims in the Muslim Power 100 by Carter Andersen, and one of the World’s 500 most influential Muslims by Georgetown University and the Jordanian Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre.

 

 

Social Status of a Muslim Woman in europe – Current Position and how to Make Progress

 

The treatment of women is one of the most influential barometers of equality in society. In addition, Muslim women are one of the most visible symbols of Islam. As such the treatment of Muslim women in society demonstrates society’s willingness to engage with the faith of Islam, broad issues of equality, the treatment of minorities, and attitudes towards religion. The law, economic structures, media, and social trends and attitudes of the general public towards Muslim women all are indicative of Muslim women’s social status. In many ways, it is easy to paint a negative picture: legislation in a number of European coun- tries banning Muslim women’s attire, the lack of social mobility of Muslim women and their economic inactivity, negative imagery within the media, social trends surveys showing negative attitudes towards Muslim women’s integration into European societies. Yet, there are Muslim women engaging in civil soci- ety, in politics, in media, and Muslim women who are achieving well academically – indeed better than their male counter parts. Where are the success stories, and how can they be a beacon for change?

  

  

Dr. sc. Edina Leković

 

Edina Leković je direktorica za politiku i programiranje u Vijeću za javna pi- tanja muslimana i često je u funkciji nacionalnog glasnogovornika Američke muslimanske zajednice za medije, vladu, međuvjerske vođe, akademske insti- tucije i društvene organizacije. Diplomirala je 1999. na UCLA (Los Angeles) iz područja Američke književnosti i kulture. Za to vrijeme bila je glavni urednik The Daily Bruin, po veličini trećim novinama u Log Angelesu. Pod njenim vod- stvom, tim je dobio nekoliko nagrada, uključujući i nagradu Society of Professi- onal Journalists Best of the West u fakultetskim publikacijama.

 

 

 Otkrivajući stvarnu sebe: Žene muslimanke na Zapadu pod reflektorom/povećalom

 

Sudeći prema ispričanim pričama o ženama muslimankama u tisku i Hollywoodu, prosječnom proma- traču ostaje vrlo malo opcija za razmišljanje: ili su one ugnjetavane, tihe i pokorne, ili, ako imaju sreće, prkose stereotipu. A ako nose hidžab, na njihova se vjerska uvjerenja gleda kao na jedini definirani ele- ment njihovog identiteta. Nažalost, žene muslimanke u Americi i Europi suočene su s mnogobrojnim obli- cima diskriminacije: kao žene, kao dio vjerske manjine i ponekad kao pripadnice skupine imigranata. Uz takve se okolnosti kritična istina uvelike ignorira: mnoge žene muslimanke su same akteri promjene i ovlaštenja.

U ovom ću predavanju usporediti napretke i izazove s kojima se žene muslimanke suočavaju u Americi i Europi u 21. stoljeću. Američke i Europske muslimanke čine jednu heterogenu grupu ako promatramo njihova iskustva, način na koji prevladavaju svoje okolnosti, mehanizme otpora koje usvajaju i strategije formiranja zajednice koje primjenjuju.

Danas su muslimanke u Europi i Americi više obrazovane i sve više zahtijevaju da se javno identificiraju kao muslimanke. Svjesnije su svog identiteta iako ta njihova prodornost ne predstavlja nužno očekivanu formu. Koncepcija suvremenosti europskih muslimanki prkosi konvencionalnim europskim pojmovima. Zahtjev žena muslimanki za jednakim pravima u društvu trebao bi biti prihvaćen, umjesto da budu izolira- ne, stigmatizirane ili natjerane u stereotipe.

 

 

Dr. sc. Edina Leković

 

Edina Leković is the Director of Policy & Programming at the Muslim Public Affairs Council and frequently acts as a national spokesperson for the Ameri- can Muslim community to media outlets, government officials, interfaith lead- ers, academic institutions, and community organizations. The topic of her mas- ter’s thesis was to understand whether Arab males’ willingness to speak out on airline racial profiling is determined by their perception of dominant public opinion. Lekovic is also a 1999 graduate of UCLA where she earned a degree in American Literature & culture. During this time she was the Editor in Chief of The Daily Bruin, the third largest paper in Los Angeles. Under her leadership, the staff won a number of national awards, including the Society of Profes- sional Journalists Best of the West in college publications.

 

 

Uncovering the real Me: Western Muslim Women Under the Spotlight

 

Judging by stories told in the news media and Hollywood about Muslim women, the average viewer is left with very few options for how to think about Muslim women: either they’re oppressed, silent and submissive, or if they’re lucky, they defy the stereotype. And if they happen to wear a hijab, their religious beliefs are seen as the only defining element of their identity. Sadly, Muslim women in America and Euro- pe face share the reality of experiencing multiple forms of discrimination – as women, as part of a religio- us minority and sometimes also for being of immigrant origin. Against this backdrop, a critical truth goes largely ignored: many Muslim women are themselves actors of change and empowerment.

In this lecture, I will compare the advances and challenges faced by American and European Muslim women in the 21st  century. American and European Muslim women make up a heterogeneous group in terms of their experiences, the ways they negotiate their circumstances, the resistance mechanisms they adopt, and the strategies of community formation they employ.

What makes Muslim women more visible in Europe and America today is that, whether they claim to be secular or religious, they are increasingly educated and claiming the right to be publicly identified as Muslims. They are increasingly assertive about their identity, although this assertiveness does not nece- ssarily take the expected form. Muslim European women’s conception of modernity defies conventional European notions and takes “modernity” in new directions. Rather than being isolated, stigmatized or forced into a stereotype, Muslim women should be embraced in their quest for equal opportunities in society.

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